Environment Monitoring

High-performance PVDF membranes prepared by the combined crystallisation and diffusion (CCD) method using a dual-casting technique: a breakthrough for water treatment applications

One of the most commonly used membranes for water treatment applications is polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membranes prepared using the non-solvent induced phase separation (NIPS) method. Unfortunately, these membranes suffer from low permeances.[...]